Also known as keyhole surgery or minimally invasive surgery, laparoscopic surgery involves several small incisions to be made about 0.5 to 1.5 cm to operate on the malignancy. The laparoscope is the key element, which is a fibre optic cable system used to view the affected area.
There are two types of laparoscopes:
Digital laparoscope: the end of the device is fitted with a charge-coupled device
Telescopic rod lens: a three-chip or single-chip video camera is fitted at the end of the cable
Prior to the surgery, the abdomen is insufflated with carbondioxide, elevating the abdominal wall. The internal organs are viewed, and a working space is created. CO2 or carbondioxide is common to the human body. It is easily removed by the respiratory system and absorbed by the tissues. With the wide usage of electrosurgical devices in laparoscopy CO2 comes with non-inflammable properties. The fibre optic cable or laparoscope is fitted with a cold light source either xenon or halogen. This is inserted through the 5mm or 10 mm cannula to illuminate the operative field. Laparoscopic surgeries are popularly performed on abdominal and pelvic cavities.
A three-chip camera identifies primary colours: red, green and blue. Thus, as the colours mix in varied proportions, the camera captures all colours and images in high fidelity. The laparoscopic cable is connected to the camera control unit, which receives the transmitted signal and converts it into an analog image. Xenon bulbs are long-lasting and provide high-intensity lights. Besides optic fibre, (made up of optical fibre glass threads) laparoscopic cable systems can also be made of liquid crystal gel cable with a sheath of clear optical gel filled inside it. Cables have to be handled with care and twisting them should be avoided. Focus and white balance is adjusted as the camera is placed about 5 cm from any object.
Advantages of laparoscopic surgeries:
One of the biggest advantages of laparoscopic surgeries till date remains minimized post-surgical scarring. Besides, patient healing and recovery times are reduced due to smaller incisions, which also lead to less post-operative pain. Haemorrhaging is reduced with no requirement for blood transfusion. Some laparoscopic surgeries do not require hospital admission while most require a negligible hospital stay. Reduced exposure of internal organs ensures that external contaminants do not affect them.
Dr. Deepak uses the latest equipment to perform curative surgical procedures causing minimal or no discomfort and enables painless recovery. Laparoscopic surgeries are performed under general anaesthesia.